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The Trademarks Law

Section 1
Short Title, extent and commencement

(1) This Act may be called the Trademarks Act (V of 1940).

(2) It extends to the whole of Pakistan.

(3) This section and section 85 shall come into force at once; the remaining provisions of the Act shall come into force on such date as the Federal Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, appoint in this behalf.

Section 2
Definitions

(1) In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,-
(a) "associated trademarks" means trademarks deemed to be, or required to be registered as, associated trademarks under this Act;

(b) "certification trademark" means a mark adapted in relation to any goods to distinguish in the course of trade goods certified by any person in respect of origin, material, mode of manufacture, quality, accuracy or other characteristics, from goods not so certified and registerable as such under the provisions of Chapter VIII in respect of those goods in the name, as proprietor of the certification trademark, of that person;

(c) "District court" means the Court of the District Judge and includes the court of an Additional District Judge or an Additional Judge or a Joint Judge;

(d) *deleted

(e) "limitations" (with its grammatical variations) means any limitations of the exclusive right to the use of a trademark given by the registration of a person as proprietor thereof, including limitations of that right as to mode of use, as to use in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in within Pakistan, or as to use in relation to goods to be exported to any market outside Pakistan;

(f) "mark" includes a device, brand, heading, label, ticket, name, signature, word, letter or numeral or any combination thereof;

(g) "permitted use" means the use of a trademark by a registered user thereof in relation to goods with which he is connected in the course of trade and in respect of which for the time being the trademark remains registered and he is registered as a registered user, being use such as to comply with any conditions or restrictions to which his registration is subject;

(h) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made, in relation to proceedings before a high Court, by such High Court, and in other cases, by the Federal Government;

(i) "registered" (with its grammatical variations) means registered under this Act;

(j) "registered trademark" means a trademark which is actually on the register;

(k) "registered user" means a person who is for the time being registered as such under section 41;

(l) "trademark" means a mark used or proposed to be used in relation to goods for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods and some person having the right, either as a proprietor or as registered user, to use the mark whether with or without any indication of the identity of that person;

(m) "transmission" means transmission by operation of law, devolution on the personal representative of a deceased person and any other mode of transfer, not being assignment; (n) "tribunal" means the Registrar or, as the case may be, the Court before which the proceeding concerned is pending;
(2) References in this Act to the use of a mark shall be construed as references to the use of a printed or other visual representation of the mark, and references herein to the use of a mark in relation to goods shall be construed as references to the use thereof upon, or in any other relation whatsoever to such goods.

Section 3
Application of other laws not barred

The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of the provisions of any other law for the time being in force.

Section 4
The Register of Trademarks

(1) For the purposes of this Act there shall be established at Karachi a Trade Marks Registry, and a record called the Register of Trademarks (in this Act referred to as the register) shall be kept thereat wherein shall be entered all registered trademarks with the names, addresses and descriptions of their proprietors, notifications of assignments and transmissions, the names, addresses and descriptions of registered users, disclaimers, conditions, limitations, and such other matters relating to registered trademarks as may be prescribed, but there shall not be entered in the register any notice of any trust express, implied or constructive, nor shall any such notice be receivable by the Registrar.

(2) Subject to the superintendence and direction of the Federal Government the register shall be kept under the control and management of an officer appointed by the Federal Government, who shall be called the Registrar of Trademarks and in this Act referred to as the Registrar.
(a) The Federal Government shall appoint one or more Deputy Registrars of Trademarks to discharge under the superintendence and direction of the Registrar such functions of the Registrar under this Act as he may from time to time authorise them to discharge; and any reference in this Act to the Registrar shall include a reference to any Deputy Registrar when so discharging any such function.

(b) The Federal Government may by notification in the official Gazette authorise the Registrar to delegate any particular functions of the Registrar to officers other than the Deputy Registrar of Trademarks.
(3) The register shall at all convenient times be open to the inspection of the public, subject to such conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed.

(4) There shall be a seal for the Trademarks Registry.

Section 5
Registration to be in respect of particular goods

(1) A trademark may be registered only in respect of particular goods or classes of goods.

(2) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods fall shall be determined by the Registrar whose decision in the matter shall be final.

Section 6
Distinctiveness requisite for registration

(1) A trademark shall not be registered unless it contains or consists of at least one of the following essential particulars, namely:-
(a) the name of a company, individual, or firm, represented in a special or particular manner;

(b) the signature of the applicant for registration or some predecessor in his business;

(c) one or more invented words;

(d) one or more words having no direct reference to the character or quality of the goods, and not being according to its ordinary signification, a geographical name or surname or the name of a sect, caste or tribe in Pakistan;

(e) any other distinctive mark, provided that a name, signature, or any word, other than such as fall within the descriptions in the above clauses, shall not be registerable except upon evidence of its distinctiveness.
(2) For the purpose of this section, the expression "distinctiveness" means adapted, in relation to the goods in respect of which a trademark is proposed to be registered, to distinguish goods with which the proprietor of the trademark is or may be connected in the course of trade from goods in the case of which no such connection subsists, either generally or, where the trademark is proposed to be registered subject to limitations, in relation to use within the extent of the registration.

(3) In determining whether a trademark is adapted to distinguish as aforesaid, the tribunal may have regard to the extent to which-
(a) the trademark is inherently so adapted to distinguish, and

(b) by reasons of the use of the trademark or of any other circumstances, the trademark is in fact so adapted to distinguish.

Section 7
Limitation as to Colour

(1) A trademark may be limited wholly or in part to one or more specified colours, and any such limitation shall be taken into consideration by any tribunal having to decide on the distinctive character of the trade mark.

(2) So far as a trademark is registered without limitation of colour it shall be deemed to be registered for all colours.

Section 8
Prohibition of registration of certain matter

No trademark nor part of a trademark shall be registered which consists of, or contains, any scandalous design, or any matter the use of which would-
(a) by reasons of its being likely to deceive or to cause confusion or otherwise, be disentitled to protection in a Court of justice; or

(b) be likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities of any class of citizens of Pakistan; or

(c) be contrary to any law for the time being in force or to morality.

Section 9
Use of Names of Chemical elements barred

No word which is the commonly used and accepted name of any single chemical element or single chemical compound (as distinguished from a mixture) shall be registered as a trademark in respect of a chemical substance or preparation, and any such registration shall, notwithstanding any thing in section 24, be deemed for the purposes of section 46 to be an entry made in the register without sufficient cause or an entry wrongly remaining on the register, as the circumstances may require:

Provided that this section shall not apply to a word which is used to donate only a brand or make of the element or compound as made by the proprietor or a registered user of the trademark, as distinguished from the element or compound as made by others, and in association with a suitable name or description open to the public use.

Section 10
Prohibition of registration of identical or similar trademark

(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), no trademark shall be registered in respect of any goods or description of goods which is identical with a trademark belonging to a different proprietor and either already on the register in respect of the same goods or description of goods or which so nearly resembles such trademark as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion.

(2) In case of honest concurrent use or of other special circumstances which, in the opinion of the Registrar, make it proper so to do he may permit the registration by more than one proprietor of trademarks which are identical or nearly resemble each other in respect of the same goods or description of goods, subject to such conditions and limitations, if any, as the Registrar may think fit to impose.

(3) Where separate applications are made by different persons to be registered as proprietors respectively of trademarks which are identical or nearly resemble each other, in respect of the same goods or description of goods, the Registrar may refuse to register any of them until their rights have been determined by a competent Court.

Section 11
Registration of parts of trademarks and of trademarks as a series

(1) Where the proprietor of a trademark claims to be entitled to exclusive use of any part thereof separately, he may apply to register the whole and the part as separate trademarks.

(2) Each such separate trademark shall satisfy all the conditions applying to, and have all the incidents of, an independent trademark.

(3) Where a person claiming to be the proprietor of several trademarks in respect of the same goods or description of goods which, while resembling each other in the material particulars thereof, yet different in respect of -
(a) statements of the goods in relation to which they are respectively used or proposed to be used; or

(b) statement of number, price, quality, or names of places; or

(c) other matter of a non-distinctive character which does not substantially affect the identity of the trademark; or

(d) colour; seeks to register those trademarks, they may be registered as a series in one registration.

Section 12
Associated Trademarks

(1) Where a trademark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in respect of any goods is identical with another trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or description of goods, or so nearly resembles it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion if used by a person other than the proprietor, the Registrar may at any time require that the trademarks shall be entered on the register as associated trademarks.

(2) Where a trademark and any part thereof are, in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 11, registered as separate trademarks in the name of the same proprietor, they shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trademarks.

(3) All trademark registered in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 11 as a series in one registration shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trademarks.

(4) On application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor of two or more trademarks registered as associated trademarks, the Registrar may dissolve the association as respect any of them if he is satisfied that there would be no likelihood of deception or confusion being caused if that trademark were used by any other person in relation to any of the goods in respect of which it is registered, and may amend the register accordingly.

Section 13
Registration subject to disclaimer

If a trademark contains -
(a) any part not separately registered as a tarde mark in the name of the proprietor, or for the separate registration of which no application has been made, or

(b) any matter common to the trade, or otherwise of a non-distinctive character,
the tribunal, in deciding whether the trademark shall be entered or shall remain on the register, may require, as a condition of its being on the register, that the proprietor shall either disclaim any right to the exclusive use of such part or of all or any portion of such matter, as the case may be, to the exclusive use of which the tribunal holds him not to be entitled, or make such other disclaimer as the tribunal may consider necessary for the purpose of defining the rights of the proprietor under the registration:

Provided that no disclaimer shall affect any rights of the proprietor of a trade mark except such as arise out of the registration of the trademark in respect of which the disclaimer is made.

Section 14
Application for Registration

(1) Any person claiming to be the proprietor of a trademark used or proposed to be used by him who is desirous of registering it shall apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner, and subject to the provisions of this Act, the Registrar may refuse the application or may accept it absolutely or subject to such amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, if any, as he may think fit.

(2) In the case of a refusal or conditional acceptance the Registrar shall, if required by the applicant, state in writing the grounds of his decision and the materials used by him in arriving thereat.

(3) The tribunal may at any time, whether before or after acceptance, correct any error in or in connection with the application, or may permit the applicant to amend his application upon such terms as it may think fit.

Section 15
Opposition to registration

(1) When an application for registration of a trademark has been accepted, whether absolutely or subject to conditions or limitations, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be after acceptance, cause the application as accepted, together with the conditions and limitations, if any, subject to which it has been accepted, to be advertised in the prescribed manner.

Provided that the Registrar may cause an application to be advertised before acceptance if it relates to a trademark to which clause (e) of sub-section (1) of section 6 applies, or in any other case where it appears to him that it is expedient by reason of any exceptional circumstances so to do, and where an application has been so advertised the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, advertise it again when it has been accepted, but shall not be bound so to do.

(2) Any person may, within the prescribed time from the date of the advertisement of an application, give notice in writing in the prescribed manner to the Registrar of opposition to the registration.

(3) The Registrar shall serve in the prescribed manner a copy of the notice on the applicant, and within the prescribed time the applicant shall send to the Registrar, in the prescribed manner, a counter-statement of the grounds on which he relies for his application, and, if he does not do so, he shall be deemed to have abandoned his application.

(4) If the applicant sends such counter-statement, the Registrar shall serve in the prescribed manner a copy thereof on the persons giving notice of opposition, and shall, after hearing the parties, if so required, and considering the evidence, decide whether, and subject to what conditions or limitations, if any, registration is to be permitted.

(5) If a person giving notice of opposition or an applicant sending a counter-statement after receipt of a copy of such notice, or an applicant against an order of the Registrar under section 14 or this section, neither resides nor carries on business in Pakistan, the tribunal may require him to give security for costs of the proceedings before it, and in default of such security being duly given may treat the opposition or application or appeal, as the case may be, as abandoned.

Section 16
Registration

(1) When an application for registration of a trademark has been accepted and either has not been opposed and the time for notice of opposition has expired, or having been opposed, has been decided in favour of the applicant, the Registrar shall, unless the application has been accepted in error, or unless the Federal Government otherwise directs, register the said trademark, and the trademark, when registered, shall be registered as of the date of making of the said application, and that date shall, subject to any directions made under section 83 applicable to such trade mark, be deemed for the purpose of this Act to be the date of registration.

(2) On the registration of a trademark the Registrar shall issue to the applicant a certificate in the prescribed from of the registration thereof sealed with the seal of the Trademarks Registry.

(3) Where the registration of a trademark is not completed within twelve months from the date of the application by reason of default on the part of the applicant, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the applicant in the prescribed manner, treat the application as abandoned unless it is completed within the time specified in that behalf in the notice.

Section 17
Jointly owned trademarks

(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), noting in this Act shall authorise the registration of two or more persons who use a trademark independently, or propose so as to use it, as joint proprietors hereof.

(2) Where the relations between two or more persons interested in a trade mark are such that no one of them is entitled as between himself and the other or others of them to use it except-
(a) on behalf of both or all of them, or

(b) in relation to an article with which both or all of them are connected in the course of trade, those persons may be registered as joint proprietors of the trademark, and this Act shall have effect in relation to any rights to the use of the trademark vested in those persons as if those rights had been vested in a single person.

Section 18
Duration and renewal of registration

(1) The registration of a trademark shall be for a period of seven years, but may be renewed from time to time in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(2) The Registrar shall, on application made by the registered proprietor of a trademark in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed period, renew the registration of the trademark for a period of fifteen years from the date of expiration of the original registration or of the last renewal of registration, as the case may be (which date is in this section referred to as "the expiration of the last registration").

(3) At the prescribed time before the expiration of the last registration of a trademark, the Registrar shall send notice in the prescribed manner to the registered proprietor of the date of expiration and the conditions as to payment of fees and otherwise upon which a renewal of registration may be obtained, and if at the expiration of the time prescribed in that behalf those conditions have not been duly complied with the Registrar may remove the trademark from the register, subject to such conditions (if any) as to its restoration to the register as may be prescribed.

Section 19
Effect of removal from register for failure to pay fee for renewal

Where a trademark has been removed from the register under this Act, for failure to pay the fee for renewal, it shall nevertheless, for the purposes of any application for the registration of another trademark during one year next after the date of the removal, be deemed to be a trademark already on the register, unless the tribunal is satisfied either-
(a) that there has been no bona fide trade use of the trademark which has been removed during the two years immediately preceding its removal; or

(b) that no deception or confusion would be likely to arise from the use of the trademark which is the subject of the application for registration by reason of any previous use of the trademark which has been removed.

Section 20
No action for infringement for unregistered trademark

(1) No person shall be entitled to institute any proceeding to prevent, or to recover damages for, the infringement of an unregistered trademark unless such trademark has been continuously in use since before the 25th day of February, 1937, by such person or by a predecessor in title of his and unless an application for its registration, made within five years form the commencement of this Act, has been refused; and the Registrar shall, on application in the prescribed manner, grant a certificate that such application has been refused.

(2) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect rights of action against any person for passing off goods as the goods of another person or the remedies in respect thereof.

Section 21
Right conferred by registration

(1) Subject to the provisions of sections 22, 25 and 26, the registration of a person in the register as proprietor of a trademark in respect of any goods shall give to that person the exclusive right to the use of the trademark in relation to those goods and, without prejudice to the generality of the forgoing provision, that right shall be deemed to be infringed by any person who, not being the proprietor of the trademark or a registered user thereof using by way of the permitted use, uses a mark identical with it or so nearly resembling it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion, in the course of trade, in relation to any goods in respect of which it is registered, and in such manner as to render the use of the mark likely to be taken either -
(a) as being used a trademark; or

(b) to import a reference to some person having the right either as a proprietor or as registered user to use the trademark or to goods with which such a person as aforesaid is connected in the course of trade.

Section 22
No infringement in certain circumstances

(1) The right to the use of a trademark given under section 21 by registration shall be subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register, and shall not be deemed to be infringed by the use of any such mark as aforesaid in any mode, in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place, or in relation to goods to be exported to any market, or in any other circumstances, to which, having regard to any such limitations the registration does not extend.

(2) The said right to use of a trademark shall not be deemed to be infringed by the use of any such mark as aforesaid by any person -
(a) in relation to goods connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user of the trademark if, as to those goods or a bulk of which they form part, the proprietor or the registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the trademark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or has to any time expressly or impliedly consented to the use of the trademark; or

(b) in relation to goods adapted to form part of, or to be accessory to, other goods in relation to which the trademark has been used without infringement of the right given as aforesaid or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods are so adapted and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the mark is to indicate otherwise than in accordance with the fact a connection in the course of trade between any person and the goods.
(3) The use of a registered trademark, being one of two or more marks registered under this Act which are identical or nearly resemble each other, in exercise of the right to the use of that trademark given by registration as aforesaid, shall not be deemed to be an infringement of the right so given to the use of any other of those trademarks.

Section 23
Registration to be prima facie evidence of validity

In all legal proceedings relating to a trademark registered under this Act, the fact that a person is registered as proprietor thereof shall be prima facie evidence of the validity of the original registration of the trade mark and of all subsequent assignments and transmissions thereof.

Section 24
Registration to be conclusive as to validity after seven years

In all legal proceedings relating to a registered trademark, the original registration of the trademark shall after the expiration of seven years from the date of its original registration to be taken to be valid in all respects unless such registration was obtained by fraud, or unless the trademark offends against the provisions of section 8.

Section 25
Saving for vested rights

Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of a registered trademark to interfere with or restrain the use by any person of a trade mark identical with or nearly resembling it in relation to goods in relation to which that person or a predecessor in title of his has continuously used that trademark from a date prior -
(a) to the use of the first-mentioned trademark in relation to those goods by the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his, or

(b) to the registration of the first-mentioned trademark in respect of those goods in the name of the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his, whichever is the earlier, or to object (on such use being proved) to registration of that identical or nearly resembling trademark in respect of those goods under sub-section 2 of section 10.

Section 26
Saving for use of name, address, or description of goods

No registration of a trademark shall interfere with any bona fide use by a person of his own name or that of his place of business, or of the name, or of the name of the place of business, of any of his predecessors in business, or the use by any person of any bona fide description of the character or quality of his goods, not being a description that would be likely to be taken as importing any such reference as is mentioned in clause (b) of section 21 or in clause (b) of section 57.

Section 27
Words used as name or description of an article or substance

(1) The registration of a trademark shall not be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of any use after the date of the registration of any words which the trademark contains or of which it consists as the name or description of an article or substance:

Provided that, if it is proved either -
(a) that there is a well-known and established use of the said words as the name or description of the article or substance by a person or persons carrying on a trade therein, not being use in relation to goods connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user of the trademark or (in the case of a certification trademark) goods certified by the proprietor; or

(b) that the article or substance has been manufactured under a patent in force at or granted after the commencement of this section, that a period of two years or more after the cesser of the patent has elapsed, and that the said words are the only practicable name or description of the article or substance, -
the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply.

(2) Where the facts mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1) are proved with respect to any words, then -
(a) for the purposes of any proceedings under section 46 -
(i) if the trademark consists solely of such words, the registration of the trademark, so far as regards registration in respect of the article or substance in question or of any goods of the same description, shall be deemed to be an entry wrongly remaining on the register;

(ii) if the trademark contains such words and other matter, the tribunal, in deciding whether the mark shall remain on the register, so far as regards registration in respect of the article or substance in question and of nay goods of the same description, may, in case of a decision in favour of its remaining on the register, require as a condition thereof that the proprietor shall disclaim any right to the exclusive use in relation to that article or substance and any goods of the same description, of such words, provided that no disclaimer shall affect any rights of the proprietor of a trademark except such as arise out of the registration of the trademark in respect of which the disclaimer is made;
(b) for the purposes of any other legal proceedings relating to the trade mark, -
(i) if the trademark consists solely of such words, all rights of the proprietor under this Act or any other law to the exclusive use of the trademark in relation to the article or substance in question or to any goods of the same description, or

(ii) if the trademark contains such words and other matter, all such rights of the proprietor to the exclusive use of such words, in such relation as aforesaid,
shall be deemed to have ceased on the date at which the use mentioned in clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (1) first became well-known and established, or at the expiration of the period of two years mentioned in clause (b) of the said proviso.

Section 28
Power of registered proprietor to assign and give receipts

The person for the time being entered in the register as proprietor of a trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Act and to any rights appearing from the register to be vested in any other person, have power to assign the trademark, and to give effectual receipts for any consideration for such assignment.

Section 29
Assignability of registered trademarks

Notwithstanding anything in any other law to the contrary, a registered trademark shall, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, be assignable and transmissible whether in connection with the good will of a business or not, and in respect either of all of the goods in respect of which it is registered or of some only of those goods.

Section 30
Assignability of unregistered trademarks

An unregistered trademark shall be assignable and transmissible whether in connection with the goodwill of a business or not:

Provided that, except in connection with the goodwill of a business, assignment or transmission shall be permissible only if -
(a) at the time of assignment or transmission of the unregistered trade mark it is used in the same business as a registered trademark, and

(b) the registered trademark is assigned or transmitted at the same time and to the same person as the unregistered trademark, and

(c) the unregistered trademark relates to goods in respect of which the registered trademark is assigned or transmitted.


Section 31
Restrictions on assignment or transmission where multiple exclusive rights would be created

(1) Notwithstanding anything in section 29 and 30, a trademark shall not be assignable or transmissible in a case which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law, exclusive rights in more than one of the persons concerned to the use, in relation to the same goods or description of goods, of trademarks nearly resembling each other or of identical trade marks, if, having regard to the similarity of the goods and of the trade marks, the use of the trademark in exercise of those rights would be likely to deceive or cause confusion:

Provided that an assignment or transmission shall not be deemed to be invalid under this sub-section if the exclusive rights subsisting as a result thereof in the persons concerned respectively are, having regard to limitations imposed thereon, such as not to be exercisable by two or more of those persons in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in, within Pakistan (otherwise than for export therefrom), or in relation to goods to be exported to the same market outside Pakistan.

(2) The proprietor of a registered trademark who proposes to assign it may submit to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a statement of case setting out the circumstances and the Registrar may issue to him a certificate stating whether, having regard to the similarity of the goods and of the trademarks referred to in the case, the proposed assignment would or would not be invalid under sub-section (1), and a certificate so issued shall, subject to appeal and unless it is shown that the certificate was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be conclusive as to the validity or invalidity under sub-section (1) of the assignment in so far as such validity or invalidity depends upon the facts set out in the case, but, as regards a certificate in favour of validity, only if application for the registration under section 35 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which the certificate is issued.

Section 32
Restrictions on assignment or transmission when exclusive rights would be created in different parts of Pakistan

Notwithstanding anything in section 29 and 30, a trademark shall not be assignable or transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the circumstances subsist whether under this Act or any other law, an exclusive right in one of the persons concerned to the use of the trademark limited to use in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in, in any place in Pakistan and an exclusive right in another of these persons to the use of trademark nearly resembling the first-mentioned trademark or of an identical trademark in relation to the same goods or description of goods limited to use in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in, in any other place in Pakistan:

Provided that in any such case, on application in the prescribed manner by the proprietor of a trademark who proposes to assign it, or by a person who claims that a registered trademark has been transmitted to him or to a predecessor in title of his since the commencement of this Act, the Registrar, if he is satisfied that in all the circumstances the use of the trademark in exercise of the said rights would not be contrary to the public interest, may approve the assignment or transmission, and an assignment or transmission so approved shall not, unless it is shown that the approval was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be deemed to be invalid under this section or section 31 if application for the registration under section 35 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which the approval is given or, in the case of a transmission, was made before the date.

Section 33
Conditions for assignment otherwise than in
connection with the goodwill of a business

When an assignment in respect of any goods of a trademark which is at the time of the assignment used in a business in those goods, is made after the commencement of this Act otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of that business, the assignment shall not take effect unless the assignee, not later than the expiration of six months from the date on which the assignment is made or within such extended period, if any, as the Registrar may allow, applies to the Registrar for directions with respect to the advertisement of the assignment, and advertise it in such form and manner and within such period as the Registrar may direct.

Section 34
Conditions for assignment and transmission of
certification trademarks and associated trademarks

(1) A certification trademark shall not be assignable or transmissible otherwise than with the consent of the Federal Government, for which application shall be made in writing in the prescribed manner through the Registrar.

(2) Associated trademarks shall be assignable and transmissible only as a whole and not separately.

Section 35
Registration of assignments and transmissions

(1) Where a person becomes entitled by assignment or transmission to a registered trademark, he shall apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar to register his title, and the Registrar shall on receipt of the application and on proof of title to his satisfaction, register him as the proprietor of the trademark in respect of the goods in respect of which the assignment or transmission has effect, and shall cause particulars of the assignment or transmission to be entered on the register.

(2) Except for the purposes of an appeal against a decision of the Registrar under sub-section (1) or of an application under section 46, a document or instrument in respect of which no entry has been made in the register in accordance with sub-section (1) shall not be admitted in evidence before any tribunal in proof of the title to a trademark unless the tribunal otherwise directs.

Section 36
Proposed use of trademark by company to be formed

(1) No application for the registration of a tarde mark in respect of any goods shall be refused, nor shall permission for such registration be withheld, on the ground only that it appears that the applicant does not use or propose to use the trademark, if the Registrar is satisfied that a company is about to be formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1913 and that the applicant intends to assign the trademark to that company with a view to the use thereof in relation to those goods by the company.

(2) The tribunal may, in a case to which sub-section (1) applies, require the applicant to give security for the costs of any proceedings relative to any opposition or appeal, and in default of such security being duly give may treat the application as abandoned.

(3) Where in a case to which sub-section (1) applies, a trademark in respect of any goods in registered in the name of an applicant who relies on intention to assign to a company, then, unless within such period as may be prescribed, or within such further period not exceeding six months as the Registrar may, on application being made to him in the prescribed manner, allow, the company has been registered as the proprietor of the trademark in respect of those goods, the registration shall cease to have effect in respect thereof at the expiration of that period, and the Registrar shall amend the register accordingly.

Section 37
Removal from Register and imposition of limitations on ground of non-use

(1) Subject to the provisions of section 38, a registered trademark may be taken off the register in respect of any of the goods in respect of which it is registered on application in the prescribed manner by any person aggrieved to a High Court or to the Registrar, on the grounds either -
(a) that the trademark was registered without any bona fide intention on the part of the applicant for registration that it should be used in relation to those goods by him or, in a case to which the provisions of section 36 apply, by the company concerned, and that there has in fact been no bona fide use of the trademark in relation to those goods by any proprietor thereof for the time being up to a date one month before the date of the application; or

(b) that up to a date one month before the date of the application, a continuous period of five years or longer elapsed during which the trademark was registered and during which there was no bona fide use thereof in relation to those goods by any proprietor thereof for the time being:

Provided that, except where the applicant has been permitted under sub-section (2) of section 10 to register an identical or nearly resembling trade mark in respect of the goods in question or where the tribunal is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a trademark, the tribunal may refuse an application made under clause (a) or clause (b) in relation to any goods, if it is shown that there has been, before the relevant date or during the relevant period, as the case may be, bona fide use of the trademark by any proprietor thereof for the time being in relation to goods of the same description, being goods in respect of which the trademark is registered.

(2) Where in relation to any goods in respect of which a trademark is registered -
(a) the circumstances referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) are shown to exist so far as regards non-use of the trademark in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in, in a particular place in Pakistan (otherwise than for export from Pakistan), or in relation to goods to be exported to a particular market outside Pakistan; and

(b) a person has been permitted under sub-section (2) of section 10 to register an identical or nearly resembling trademark in respect of those goods under a registration extending to use in relation to goods to be sold out, or otherwise traded in, or in relation to goods to be so exported, or the tribunal is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a trademark,
on application by that person in the prescribed manner to a High Court or to the Registrar, the tribunal may impose on the registration of the first-mentioned trademark such limitations as it thinks proper for securing that registration shall cause to extend to such use.

(3) An application shall not be entitled to rely for the purpose of clause (b) of sub-section (1) or of sub-section (2) on any non-use of a trade mark which is shown to have been due to special circumstances in the trade and not to any intention to abandon or not to use the trademark in relation to the goods to which the application relates.

Section 38
Defensive registration of well known trademarks

(1) Where a trademark consisting of any invented word has become so well-known as respects any goods in relation to which it is registered and has been used, that the use thereof in relation to other goods would be likely to be taken as indicating a connection in the course of trade between those goods and a person entitled to use the trademark in relation to the first-mentioned goods, then, notwithstanding that the proprietor registered in respect of the first-mentioned goods does not use or propose to use the trademark in relation to those other goods and notwithstanding anything in section 37, the trademark may on application in the prescribed manner by such proprietor be registered in his name in respect of those other goods as a defensive trademark and, while so registered, shall not be liable to be taken off the register in respect of those goods under the said section.

(2) The registered proprietor of a trademark may apply for the registration thereof in respect of any goods as a defensive trademark notwithstanding that it is already registered in his name in respect of those goods otherwise than as a defensive trademark, or may apply for the registration thereof in respect of any goods otherwise than as a defensive trademark notwithstanding that it is already registered in his name in respect of those goods as a defensive trademark, in lieu in each of the existing registration.

(3) A trademark registered as a defensive trademark and that trademark as otherwise registered in the name of the same proprietor shall, notwithstanding that the respective registrations are in respect of different goods, be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trademarks.

(4) On application in prescribed manner by any person aggrieved to a High Court or to the Registrar, the registration of a trademark as a defensive trademark may be canceled on the ground that the requirements of sub-sec. (1) are no longer satisfied in respect of any goods in relation to which the trademark is registered in the name of the same proprietor otherwise than as a defensive trademark, or may be canceled as respects any goods in relation to which it is registered as a defensive trademark on the ground that there is no longer any likelihood that the use of the trade mark in relation to those goods would be taken as giving the indication mentioned in sub-section (1).

(5) The Registrar may at any time cancel the registration as a defensive trade mark of a trademark of which there is no longer any registration in the name of the same proprietor otherwise than as a defensive trademark.

(6) Except as otherwise expressly provided in this section, the provisions of this Act shall apply in respect of the registration of trademarks as defensive trademarks and of trademarks so registered as they apply in other cases.

Section 39
Registered users

(1) A person other than the proprietor of a trademark may be registered as a registered user thereof in respect of all or any of the goods in respect of which it is registered (otherwise than as a defensive trademark) and either with or without conditions or restrictions.

(2) The permitted use of a trademark shall be deemed to be used by the proprietor thereof, and shall be deemed not to be used by a person other than the proprietor, for any purpose for which such mark is material under this Act or any other law.

Section 40 Power of registered users to take proceedings against infringement.

(1) Subject to any agreement subsisting between the parties, registered user of a trademark shall be entitled to call upon the proprietor thereof to take proceedings to prevent infringement thereof, and if the proprietor refuses or neglects to do so within three months after being so-called upon, the registered user may institute proceedings for infringement in his own name as if he were the proprietor, making the proprietor a defendant.

(2) Notwithstanding any thing contained in any other law, a proprietor so added as defendant shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the proceedings.

Section 41
Application for registration as registered users

(1) Where it is proposed that a person should be registered as a registered user of a trademark, the proprietor and the proposed registered user shall make application in writing to the Registrar in prescribed manner accompanied by an affidavit made by the proprietor, or by some person authorised to the satisfaction of the Registrar to act on his behalf, -
(a) giving particulars of the relationship, existing or proposed, between the proprietor and the proposed registered user, including particulars showing the degree of control by the proprietor over the permitted use which their relationship will confer and whether it is a term of their relationship that the proposed registered user shall be the sole registered user or that there shall be any other restriction as to persons for whose registration as registered users application may be made;

(b) stating the goods in respect of which registration is proposed;

(c) stating any conditions or restrictions proposed with respect to the characteristics of the goods, to the mode or place of permitted use, or to any other matter;

(d) stating whether the permitted use it to be for a period or without limit of period, and, if for a period, the duration thereof;
and by such further documents, information or evidence as may be required by the Registrar or as may be prescribed.

(2) When the requirements of sub-section (1) have been complied which, if the Registrar is satisfied that in all the circumstances the use of the trademark in respect of the proposed goods or any of them by the proposed registered user subject to any conditions or restrictions which the Registrar may think proper, would not be contrary to the public interest, the Registrar may register, subject as aforesaid, the proposed registered user as a registered user in respect of the goods as to which he is so satisfied.

(3) The Registrar shall refuse as application under this section if it appears to him that the grant thereof would tend to facilitate trafficking in a trademark.

(4) The Registrar shall, if so requested by an applicant, take steps for securing that information given for the purposes of an application under this section (other than matter entered in the register) is not disclosed to rivals in trade.

(5) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner:-
(a) of the registration of a person as a registered user, to any other registered user of the trademark;

(b) of an application under section 42, to the registered proprietor, and each registered user (not being the applicant) of the trademark.
Section 42
Power to Registrar to vary or cancel registration as registered user.

Without prejudice to the provisions of section 46, the registration of a person as registered user:-
(a) may be varied by the Registrar as regards the goods in respect of which, or any conditions or restrictions subject to which, it has effect, on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor of the trademark;

(b) maybe canceled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor or of the registered user or of any other registered user of the trademark;

(c) may be canceled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of any person on any of the following grounds, namely:-
(i) that the registered user has used the trademark otherwise than by way of the permitted use, or in such a way as to cause or to be likely to cause, deception or confusion;

(ii) that the proprietor or the registered user misrepresented, or failed to disclose, some fact material to the application for the registration, or that the circumstances have materially changed since he date of the registration;

(iii) that the registration ought not to have been effected having regard to rights vested in the applicant by virtue of a contract in the performance of which he is interested;
(d) may be canceled by the Registrar in respect of any goods in relation to which the trademark is no longer registered.
Section 43
Registered user not to have right of assignment or transmission.

Nothing in this Act shall confer on a registered user of a trademark any assignable or transmissible right to the use of thereof.

Section 44
Use of one of associated or substantially identical
trademarks equivalent to use of another

(1) Where under the provisions of this Act use of a registered trademark is required to be proved for any purpose, the tribunal may, if and so far as it shall think right, accept use of a registered associated trade mark, or of the trademark with additions or alterations not substantially affecting its identity, as an equivalent for the use required to be proved.

(2) The use of the whole of a registered trademark shall for the purpose of this Act be deemed to be also a use of any trademark being a part thereof and registered in accordance with sub-section 1 of section 11 in the name of the same proprietor.

Section 45
Use of trademark for export trade, and use when form of trade connection changes

(1) The application in Pakistan of a trademark to goods to be exported from Pakistan and any other act done in Pakistan in relation to goods to be so exported which, if done in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in within Pakistan would constitute use of a trademark therein, shall be deemed to constitute use of the trademark in relation to those goods for any purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law.

(2) The use of a registered tarde mark in relation to goods between which and the person using the mark any form of connection in the course of trade subsists shall not be deemed to be likely to cause deception or confusion on the ground only that the mark has been or is used in relation to goods between which and the person using the mark or any predecessor in his business different form of connection in the course of trade subsisted or subsists.

Section 46
Power to cancel, vary registration and to rectify the register

(1) On application in the prescribed manner by any person aggrieved to a High Court or to the Registrar, the tribunal may make such order as it may think fit for canceling or varying the registration of a trademark on the ground of any contravention of, or failure to observe a condition entered on the register in relation thereto.

(2) Any person aggrieved by the absence or omission from the register of any entry, or by any entry made in the register without sufficient cause, or by any entry wrongly remaining on the register, or by any error or defect in any entry in the register, may apply in the prescribed manner to a High Court or to the Registrar, and the tribunal may make such order for making, expunging or varying the entry as it may think fit.

(3) The tribunal may in any proceeding under this section decide any question that it may be necessary or expedient to decide in connection with the rectification of the register.

(4) A High Court or the Registrar, of its or his own motion, may, after giving notice in the prescribed manner to the parties concerned and after giving them an opportunity of being heard, make any order referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2).

(5) Any order of the Court rectifying the register shall direct that notice of the rectification shall be served upon the Registrar in the prescribed manner who shall upon receipt of such notice rectify the register accordingly.

Section 47
Correction of register

(1) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor, -
(a) correct any error in the name, address or description of the registered proprietor of a trademark;

(b) enter any change in the name, address or description of the person who is registered as proprietor of a trademark;

(c) cancel the entry of a trademark on the register;

(d) strike out any goods or classes of goods from those in respect of which a trademark is registered;

(e) enter a disclaimer or memorandum relating to a trademark which does not in any way extend the rights given by the existing registration of the trademark.
(2) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by a registered user of a trademark, correct any error, or enter any change, in the name, address or description of the registered user.

Section 48
Alteration of registered trademark

(1) The registered proprietor of a trademark may apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar for leave to add to or alter the trademark in any manner not substantially affecting the identity thereof, and the Registrar may refuse leave or may grant it on such terms and subject to such limitations as he may think fit.

(2) The Registrar may cause an application under this section to be advertised in the prescribed manner in any case where it appears to him that it is expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within the prescribed time from the date of the advertisement any person gives notice to the Registrar in the prescribed manner of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall, after hearing the parties if so required, decide the matter.

(3) Where leave is granted under this section, the trademark as altered shall be advertised in the prescribed manner, unless the application has already been advertised under sub-section (2).

Section 49
Adaption of entries in register to amended or substituted classification of goods

(1) The Registrar shall not, in exercise of any power conferred on him under clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 84, make any amendment of the register which would have the effect of adding any goods or classes of goods to those in respect of which a tarde mark is registered (whether in one or more classes) immediately before the amendment is to be made or of antedating the registration of a trademark in respect of any goods;

Provided that this sub-section shall not apply when the Registrar is satisfied that compliance therewith would involve un due complexity and that the addition or antedating, as the case may be, would not affect any substantial quantity of goods and would not substantially prejudice the rights of any person.

(2) A proposal so to amend the register shall be notified to the registered proprietor of the trademark affected and advertised in the prescribed manner, and may be opposed before the Registrar by any person aggrieved on the ground that the proposed amendment contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1).

Section 50
Provisions of this Act applicable to certification trademarks

Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, the other provisions of this Act except sections 6, 21, 22, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 and 43 and sub-section (2) of section 45 shall apply to certification trademarks as they apply to trademarks.

Section 51
Certification trademark not to be registered in
name of person trading in goods certified thereby

A mark shall not be registerable as a certification tarde mark in the name of a person who carries on a trade in goods of the kind certified.

Section 52
Determination whether a mark is a certification trademark

(1) In determining whether a mark is adapted to distinguish in accordance with the provisions of clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2, the tribunal may have regard to the extent to which: -
(a) the mark is inherently so adapted to distinguish in relation to the goods in question; and

(b) by reason of the use of the mark or of any other circumstances, the mark is in fact so adapted to distinguish in relation to the goods in question.

Section 53
Application for registration

(1) An application for the registration of a mark as a certification trade mark shall be made to the Registrar in writing in the prescribed manner by the person proposed to be registered as the proprietor thereof, and accompanied by a draft of the regulations to be deposited under section 56.

(2) The provisions of section 14 shall have effect in relation to an application under this section as they have effect in relation to an application under the said section, except that for references therein to acceptance of an application there shall be substituted references to authorisation to proceed with the application.

(3) In dealing under the said provisions with an application under this section, the tribunal shall have regard to the like considerations, so far as relevant, as if the application were an application under section 14 and to any other considerations (not being matters within the competence of the Federal Government under section 54) relevant to applications under this section, including the desirability of securing that a certification trademark shall comprise some indication that it is certification trademark.

Section 54
Consideration of application for registration by Federal Government

When authorisation to proceed with an application under section 53 has been given, the Registrar shall forward the application to the Federal Government who shall consider the application with regard to the following matters, namely:-
(a) whether the applicant is competent to certify the goods in respect of which the mark is to be registered;

(b) whether the draft of regulations to be deposited under section 56 is satisfactory;

(c) whether in all the circumstances the registration applied for would be to the public advantage;

and may either -
(i) direct that the application shall not be accepted; or

(ii) direct the Registrar to accept the application and approve the said draft of regulations either without modification and unconditionally or subject to any conditions or limitations, or to any amendments or modification of the application or of the regulations, which it thinks requisite having regard to any of the said matters;
but, except in the case of a direction for acceptance and approval without modification and unconditionally, the Federal Government shall not decide the matter without giving to the applicant an opportunity of being heard:

Provided that the Federal Government may, at the request of the applicant made with the concurrence of the Registrar, consider the application with regard to any of the said matters before authorisation to proceed with the application has been given, so however that the Federal Government shall be at liberty to reconsider any matter on which it has given a decision under this proviso if any amendment or modification is thereafter made in the application or in the draft of the regulations.

Section 55
Opposition to registration

(1) When an application has been accepted, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be thereafter, cause the application as accepted to be advertised in the prescribed manner, and the provisions of section 15 shall have effect in relation the registration of the mark as if the application had been an application under section 14; Provided that, in deciding under the said provisions the tribunal shall have regard only to the considerations referred to in sub-section (3) of section 53, and a decision under the said provisions in favour of the applicant shall be conditional on the determination in his favour by the Federal Government under sub-section (2) of this section of any opposition relating to any of the matters referred to in section 54.

(2) When notice of opposition is given relating to any of the matters referred to in section 54, the Federal Government shall, after hearing the parties, if so required, and considering any evidence, decide whether, and subject to what conditions or limitations, or amendments or modifications, if any, of the application or of the regulations to be deposited under section 56, registration is, having regard to those matters, to be permitted.

Section 56
Deposit of regulations governing the use of a certification trademark

(1) There shall be deposited at the Trademarks Registry in respect of every mark registered as a certification trademark regulations approved by the Federal Government for governing the use thereof, which shall include provisions as to the cases in which the proprietor is to certify goods and to authorise the use of the certification trademark, and may contain any other provisions which the Federal Government may be general or special order require or permit to be inserted therein (including provisions conferring a right of appeal to the Registrar against any refusal of the proprietor to certify goods or to authorise the use of the certification trademark in accordance with the regulations); and regulations so deposited shall be open to inspection in like manner as the register.

(2) The regulations so deposited may on the application of the registered proprietor be altered by the Registrar with the consent of the Federal Government.

(3) The Federal Government may cause such application to be advertised in any case where it appears to it expedient so to do, and where it does so, if within the time specified in the advertisement any person gives notice of opposition to the application, the Federal Government shall not decide the matter without giving the parties an opportunity of being heard.

Section 57
Right conferred by registration

(1) Subject to the provisions of sections 25, 26 and 58, the registration of a person as proprietor of a certification trademark in respect of any goods shall, give to that person the exclusive right to the use of the certification trademark in relation to those goods, and, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, that right shall be deemed to be infringed by any person who, not being the proprietor of the mark or a parson authorised by him in that behalf under the regulations deposited under section 56, using it in accordance therewith, uses a mark identical with it or so nearly resembling it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion, in the course of trade, in relation to any goods, in respect of which it is registered, and in such manner as to render the use of the mark likely to be taken either -
(a) as being used as a certification trademark; or

(b) to import a reference to some person having the right either as proprietor, or by his authorisation under the said regulations, to use the mark, or to goods certified by the proprietor.

Section 58
No infringement in certain circumstances

(1) The right to the use of a certification trademark given under section 57 by registration shall be subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register, and shall not be deemed to be infringed by the use of any such mark as aforesaid in any mode, in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in any place, in relation to goods to be exported to any market, or in any other circumstances, to which having regard to any such limitations, the registration does not extend.

(2) The said right to the use of a certification trademark shall not be deemed to be infringed by the use of any such mark as aforesaid by any person -
(a) in relation to goods certified by the proprietor of the mark if, as to those goods or a bulk of which they form part, the proprietor or another in accordance with his authorisation under the relevant regulations has applied the mark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or the proprietor has at any time expressly or impliedly consented to the use of the mark, or

(b) in relation to goods adapted to form part of, or to be accessory to, other goods in relation to which the mark has been used without infringement of the right given as aforesaid or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods are so adapted and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the mark is to indicate otherwise than in accordance with the fact that the goods are certified by the proprietor:
Provided that clause (a) shall not apply to the case of use consisting of the application of any such mark as aforesaid to any goods, notwithstanding that they are such goods as are mentioned in that clause if such application is contrary to the said regulations.

(3) Where a certification trademark is one of two or more certification trade marks registered under this Act which are identical or nearly resemble each other, the use of any of those marks in exercise of the right to the use of that mark given by registration, shall not be deemed to be an infringement of the right so given to the use of any other of those marks.


Section 59
Cancellation or varying of registration

(1) If the Federal Government may, on the application in the prescribed manner of any person aggrieved or on the recommendation of the Registrar, and after giving the proprietor an opportunity of opposing the application or recommendation, make such order as it think fit for expunging or varying any entry in the register relating to a certification trademark, or for varying the deposited regulations, on any of the following grounds, namely: -
(a) that the proprietor is no longer competent, in the case of any of the goods in respect of which the mark is registered, to certify those goods;

(b) that the proprietor has failed to observe any provision of the deposited regulations to be observed on his part;

(c) that it is no longer to the public advantage that the mark should be registered;

(d) that it is requisite for the public advantage that, if the mark remains registered, the regulations should be varied;
and neither a High Court nor the Registrar shall have any jurisdiction to make an order under section 46 on any of those grounds.

(2) The Registrar shall rectify the register and the deposited regulations in such manner as may be requisite for giving effect to an order made under sub-section (1).

Section 60
Costs not to be awarded in certain cases

The Registrar shall have no power to award costs to or against any party on an appeal to him against a refusal of the proprietor of a certification trademark to certify goods or to authorise the use of the mark.

Section 61
Decisions of Federal Government to be final

Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Chapter, every decision of the Federal Government under this Chapter shall be final.

Section 62
Textile goods

The Federal Government shall prescribe classes of goods (in this Chapter referred to as textile goods) to the trademarks used in relation to which the provisions of this chapter shall apply; and subject to the said provisions, the other provisions of this Act shall apply to such trademarks as they apply to trademarks used in relation to other classes of goods.

Section 63
** Omitted

Section 64
Restrictions on registration of textile goods

(1) In respect of textile goods being piece goods -
(a) no mark consisting of a line heading alone shall be registerable as a trademark;

(b) a line heading shall not be deemed to be adapted to distinguish;

(c) the registration of a trademark shall not give any exclusive right to the use of a line heading.
(2) In respect of any textile goods, the registration of letters or numerals, or any combination thereof, shall be subject to such conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed.

Section 65
Refused textile marks list

Trade marks in respect of textile goods of which registration has been refused shall be entered by the Registrar in a list called the Refused Textile Marks List, and the said list shall at all convenient times be open to the inspection of the public subject to such conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed.

Section 66
Advisory committees

(1) The Federal Government may in the prescribed manner constitute one or more Advisory Committees of persons versed in the usages of the textile trade for the purpose of this section.

(2) The Registrar shall consult any such Committee with respect to any circumstances peculiar to the textile trade arising on an application to register a trademark in respect of textile goods.

(3) The place of meeting and the conduct of business of such Committees shall be determined by rules made under this Act.

Section 67
Penalty for falsification of entries in register

If any person makes, or causes to be made a false entry in the register, or a writing falsely purporting to be a copy of an entry in the register, or produces or tenders, or causes to be produced or tendered, in evidence any such writing, knowing the entry or writing to be false, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Section 68
Penalty for falsely representing a trademark as registered

On and after the 1st day of January 1947, no person shall make any representation -
(a) with respect to a mark not being a registered trademark, to the effect that it is a registered trademark; or

(b) with respect to a part of a registered trademark not being a part separately registered as a trademark, to the effect that it is separately registered as a trademark; or

(c) to the effect that a registered trademark is registered in respect of any goods in respect of which it is not in fact registered; or

(d) to the effect that the registration of a trademark gives an exclusive right to the use thereof in any circumstances in which, having regard to limitations entered on the register, the registration does not in fact give that right.
(2) If any person contravenes any of the provisions of sub-section (1), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

(3) For the purposes of this section, the use in Pakistan in relation to a trademark of the word "registered", or of any other expression referring whether expressly or impliedly to registration, shall be deemed to import a reference to registration in the register, except -
(a) where that word or other expression is used in direct association with other words delineated in characters at least as large as those in which that word or other expression is delineated and indicating that the reference is to registration as a trademark under the laws of a country outside Pakistan, being a country under the law of which the registration referred to is in fact in force; or

(b) where that other expression is of itself such as to indicate that the reference is to such registration as is mentioned in clause (a); or

(c) where that word is used in relation to a mark registered as a trademark under the laws of a Country outside Pakistan and in relation solely to goods to be exported to that country.

Section 69
Restraint of use of Royal Arms and State emblems

If a person, without due authority, uses in connection with any trade, business, calling or profession -
(a) the Government Arms (or arms so closely resembling the same as to be calculated to deceive) in such manner as to be calculated to lead to the belief that he is duly authorised so to use the Government Arms, or

(b) name, title and semblance of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah and any variations thereof or any device, emblem or title in such manner as to be calculated to lead to the belief that he is employed by, or supplies goods to, or is connected with, the Federal Government or any Provincial Government or any department of any such Government, or

(c) the emblem, the official seal and the name or any abbreviation of the name of United Nations or any subsidiary body set up by the United Nations or of the World Health Organization in such manner as is to be calculated to lead to the belief that he is duly authorized by the Secretary-General in the case of the United Nations or by the Director-General of the World Health Organization in the case of that organization to use the emblem, seal or name,
he may, at the suit of any person who is authorised to use such Arms or such device, emblem or title or of the Registrar, be restrained by injunction from continuing so to use the same:

Provided that noting in this section shall be construed as affecting the right, if any, of the proprietor of a trademark containing such Arms, device, emblem or title to continue to use such trademark.

Section 70
Procedure before the Registrar

In all proceedings under this Act before the Registrar-
(a) the Registrar shall have all the powers of a Civil Court for the purposes of receiving evidence, administering oaths, enforcing the attendance of witnesses, compelling the discovery and production of documents and issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses;

(b) evidence shall be given by affidavit, provided that the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, take oral evidence in lieu of, or in addition to, such evidence by affidavit;

(c) the Registrar shall not exercise any powers vested in him by this Act or the rules made thereunder adversely to any party duly appearing before him without (if required in writing within the prescribed time so to do) giving such party an opportunity of being heard;

(d) the Registrar may, save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, and subject to any rules made in this behalf under section 84, make such orders as to costs as he considers reasonable, and any such orders shall be executable as a decree of a Civil Court.

Section 71
Procedure before Federal Government

In all proceedings under this Act before the Federal Government, evidence shall be given by affidavit, providing that the Federal Government may, if it thinks fit, take oral evidence in lieu of, or in addition to, such evidence by affidavit, and shall for that purpose have all the powers of a Civil Court referred to in clause (a) of section 70.

Section 72
Procedure in certain cases of option to apply for High Court or the Registrar

Where under this Act an applicant has the option of making an application either to a High Court or to the Registrar, -
(a) if any suit or other proceedings concerning the trademark in question is pending before a High Court or a District Court, the application shall be made to that High Court or, as the case may be, to the High Court within whose jurisdiction that District Court is situated;

(b) if in any other case the application is made to the Registrar, the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, refer the application at any stage of the proceedings to a High Court.
Section 73
Suits for infringement to be instituted before District Court.

No suit for the infringement of a trademark or otherwise relating to any right in a trademark shall be instituted in any Court inferior to a District Court having jurisdiction to try the suit.

Section 74
Appearance of Registrar in proceedings involving rectification of register

(1) In any suit or other legal proceedings in which the relief sought, includes alteration or rectification of the register, the Registrar shall have the right to appear and be heard, and shall appear if so directed by the tribunal.

(2) Unless the tribunal otherwise directs, the Registrar may, in lieu of appearing, submit a statement in writing signed by him, giving such particulars as he thinks proper of the proceedings before him relating to the matter in issue, or of the grounds of any decision given by him affecting it, or of the practice of the Trademarks Registry in like cases, or of other matters relevant to the issues and within his knowledge as Registrar, and such statement shall be evidence in the suit or other proceeding.

Section 74A
Costs of Registrar in proceedings before High Court

In all proceedings under this Act before a High Court the costs of the Registrar shall be in the discretion of the High Court, but the Registrar shall not be ordered to pay the costs of any of the parties.

Section 75
Evidence of entries in register and things done by Registrar

(1) A printed or written copy of any entry in the register, purporting to be certified by the Registrar and sealed with the seal of the Trademarks Registry, shall be admitted in evidence in all Courts in Pakistan and in all proceedings without further proof or production of the original.

(2) A certificate purporting to be under the hand of the Registrar as to any entry, matter or thing that he is authorised by this Act or the rules to make or do shall be prima facie evidence of the entry having been made, and of the contents thereof, or of the matter or thing having been done or not done.

Section 76
Appeals

(1) Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, an appeal shall lie, within the period prescribed by the Federal Government from any decision of the Registrar under this Act or the rules made thereunder to the High Court having jurisdiction;

Provided that if any suit or other proceeding concerning the trademark in question is pending before a High Court or a District Court, the appeal shall be made to that High Court or, as the case may be, to the High Court within whose jurisdiction that District Court is situated.

(2) In an appeal by an applicant for registration against a decision of the Registrar under section 13 or section 14 or section 15, it shall not be open, save with the express permission of the Court, to the Registrar or any party opposing the appeal to advance grounds other than those recorded in the said decision or advanced by the party in the proceedings before the Registrar, as the case may be; and where any such additional grounds are advanced, the applicant for registration may, on giving notice in the prescribed manner, withdraw his application without being liable to pay the costs of the Registrar or the parties opposing his application.

(3) Subject to the provisions of this Act and of rules made thereunder, the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, shall apply to appeals before a High Court under this Act.

Section 77
Power to High Courts to make rules

A High Court may make rules consistent with this Act as to the conduct and procedure of all proceedings under this Act before it.

Section 78
Certificate of validity

If in any legal proceeding in which the validity of the registration of a trademark comes into question, a decision is given in favour of the proprietor of the trademark, the tribunal may grant a certificate to that effect, and if such a certificate is granted, then in any subsequent legal proceeding in which the said validity comes into question, the said proprietor on obtaining a final order or judgement in his favour shall, unless the said final order or judgement for sufficient reason directs otherwise, be entitled to his full costs, charges and expenses as between legal practitioner and client.

Section 79
Trade usage, etc., to be taken into consideration

In any suit or other proceeding relating to a trademark, the tribunal shall admit evidence of the usages of the trade concerned and of any relevant trademark or get up legitimately used by other persons.

Section 80
Agents

Where by or under this Act any act, other than the making of an affidavit, is required to be done by any person, the act may, subject to prescribed conditions or in special cases with the consent of the Federal Government, be done, in lieu of by that person himself, by duly authorised agent, being either a legal practitioner or a person registered in the prescribed manner as a trademarks agent.

Section 81
Fees

There shall be paid in respect of applications and registration and other matters under this Act such fees as may be prescribed by the Federal Government.

Section 82
Government to be bound.

The provisions of this Act shall be binding on the Government.

Section 83
Power to make reciprocal arrangements with other Governments

If at any time after the expiry of six months from the commencement of this section it is made to appear to the Federal Government that any Government outside Pakistan has made satisfactory provision for the protection within its territories of trademarks in respect of which an application for registration has been made in Pakistan, the Federal Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, make provision with regard to trade marks in respect of which an application for registration has been made within the territories of that Government to enable any person who has applied with in such territories for registration of a trademark or his legal representative or assignee to obtain registration of the trademark in Pakistan under this Act on his making an application for registration in Pakistan within such period as may be fixed in this behalf by the notification as if an application for registration under this Act had been made in respect of that trademark at the date at which the application for registration was made within the territories of that Government.

Section 84
Power of Federal Government to make rules

(1) The Federal Government may, subject to the condition of previous publication by notification in the official Gazette, make rules to carry out the purposes of this Act.

(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may -
(a) prescribe the classification of goods for the purpose of the registration of trademarks, and empower the Registrar to amend the register so far as may be necessary for the purpose of adapting the entries therein to any amended or substituted classification which may be prescribed;

(b) require the making of duplicates of trademarks and other documents connected therewith;

(c) provide for securing and regulating the publication, sale or distribution of copies of trademarks and other documents connected therewith;

(d) prescribe additional matters to be entered in the register;

(e) prescribe the conditions and restrictions subject to which the register and the Refused Textile Marks List may be inspected;

(f) prescribe the form of certificates of registration;

(g) prescribe the conditions under which a trademark removed from the register may be restored under sub-section (3) of section 18;

(h) prescribe the further documents, information or evidence to accompany an application under sub-section (1) of section 41;

(i) prescribe classes of goods as textile goods for the purposes of Chapter IX;

(j) provide for the constitution of Advisory Committees referred to in section 66, and prescribe the places of meeting, and conduct of business at meetings, of such Committees;

(k) regulate the awarding of costs by the Registrar under section 70;

(l) prescribe the conditions subject to which an agent referred to in section 80 may act;

(m) prescribe the fees to be paid under this Act;

(n) provide for the establishment of branches of the Trademarks Registry when expedient for facilitating the working of this Act, and authorise the preparation of copies of the register to be kept at such branch offices;

(o) prescribe the manner in which, in proceedings under this Act before the Federal Government or the Registrar, application shall be made, notices given and matters advertised;

(p) prescribe times or periods required by this Act to be prescribed;

(q) provide, generally, for regulating the business of the Trademarks Registry and of the branches established under clause (n) and for regulating all things by this Act placed under the direction or control of the Federal Government or the Registrar;
Section 85
Power to Federal Government to make provisions for applications for registration before the coming into force of the remaining provisions of Act.

The Federal Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, provide such procedure as it considers expedient to enable intending applicants to deposit trademarks at the Patent Office before the coming into force of the remaining provisions of this Act:

Provided that the deposit of a trademark under this section shall not affect any right, existing or accruing, in the trademark.



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