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First Aid Tips

1. Respond Quickly and Stay Calm

Look for major complications

2. Do Not Move Victim Unless Absolutely Necessary

If victim complains of neck or back injuries, definitely do not move until ambulance arrives. If it is essential that the patient be moved, transport by means of stretcher only. A make shift stretcher can be made from a ladder or board.

Symptom
condition, indication, characteristic

Treatment
remedy, procedure, recommendation

Severe Bleeding

  • Contact physician
     
  • Put bandage directly on wound and apply pressure. Do not remove bandage, as it may disrupt the clotting process--simply add additional bandage to the wound.
    If there are no signs of fracture, elevate wound above patient's heart.
    If fracture is present, keep wound stationery.
     
  • If excess bleeding persists, press firmly at pressure point which cuts off blood flow to the wounded area.

Artificial Respiration
 

  • With one hand supporting the back of neck, tilt head backward--remove any foreign object from mouth.
    Pinch nostrils shut--to prevent any air leakage when inflating the lungs.
     
  • Make an airtight seal around patient's mouth with your own lips. Blow air into patient's mouth.
     
  • Remove your mouth from patient-- put ear next to patient's mouth and listen for any kind of exhalation.
     
  • The above process should be repeated every five seconds (children--every three seconds).
     
  • Repeat until patient responds or ambulance arrives.

Heart Attack Symptoms:
 

  • Pain and pressure in center of chest. It may shoot outwards-- usually to left shoulder and arm.
     
  • Pain may move to neck, jaws, arms and across chest.
     
  • Skin will take on a bluish color.
  • Patient may then begin to perspire, vomit, have shortness of breath or faint.

Treatment:
 

  • Call physician immediately (specify need for oxygen).
  • Keep patient in horizontal position.
     
  • Keep patient warm and comfortable--loosen collar
  • If breathing has stopped, give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

Shock
When to be aware of shock

  • Any time victim has suffered serious injury or has become seriously ill.

Treatment:

  • Keep victim in horizontal position. If there are any signs of head or chest injury, keep head and shoulders elevated.
  • Keep patient warm--to prevent loss of body heat, wrap patient in blanket or any other available material.
     
  • Call a physician immediately.
  • If medical assistance is delayed for more than two hours, administer the following fluid every 15 to 20 minutes:
  • --4 oz. warm water (2 oz. to children)
  • --1/8 tsp salt
  • pinch of baking soda

    Do not give fluid to patient who is vomiting, unconscious, has head injuries, or is complaining of abdominal injuries.
     

 
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Appendicitis 

S Y M P T O M S
Pain in right lower abdomen. Nausea, possible vomiting and fever.

T R E A T M E N T
Call your doctor. Never give anything by mouth. Ice bag may reduce discomfort.

Back to Home
 

Burns and Scalds

S Y M P T O M S
Redness, mild swelling and pain. Blisters main develop.

T R E A T M E N T
First flood the burn with cool water(not ice water), then wash with cool water and soap. Call doctor if blistered or white, dry and painless.

Back to Home
 

Convulsion

S Y M P T O M S
Strong, jerking movements, stiff body. Difficulty in breathing. Bluish face. Eyes rolled back. Gritting of teeth, frothy mouth.

T R E A T M E N T
Call doctor. Prevent patient from biting anyone else. Keep him lying down, do not restrain, loosen collar and cover him.

Back to Home
 

Croup 

S Y M P T O M S
Noisy, difficult breathing. Hoarse, barking cough.

T R E A T M E N T
Call your doctor. Expose immediately to moist air: Use a humidifier in a small room or put patient in the bathroom and turn on the shower. (Keep doors and windows closed.)

Back to Home
 

Cut and Bruises

S Y M P T O M S
Cuts bleed and hurt. Bruises get red, swollen and hurt.

T R E A T M E N T
Elevate the extremity. Clean cuts with soap and water. Stop bleeding by applying pressure. Apply cold cloths or ice packs to bruises to relieve pain and reduce swelling. Call your doctor if cuts do not close.

Back to Home
 

Dog Bite 

S Y M P T O M S
Redness, swelling and bleeding if skin is broken. Fear of the dog.

T R E A T M E N T
Wash with soap and water. Cover with clean bandage. Find the name and address of dogs owner, call your doctor or report bite to emergency room of hospital

Back to Home
 

Drowning

S Y M P T O M S
Unconscious. pale or blue skin

T R E A T M E N T
If trained, administer CPR , otherwise give mouth to mouth resuscitation if breathing has stopped. Do not move victims neck, back or head unnecessarily. Call an ambulance.

Back to Home
 

Ear Ache 

S Y M P T O M S
Pain. Possible dizziness or discharge from ear. Possible fever.

T R E A T M E N T
Call your doctor. Relieve pain by applying cool or warm compresses to ear, whichever gives relief.

Back to Home
 

Fainting

S Y M P T O M S
Pale, clammy skin, dizziness, shallow breathing. Sweating and temprory unconsciousness.

T R E A T M E N T
Place in supine position with legs raised higher than the body. Loosen clothing. Apply cold cloths to face. Call your doctor if fainting reoccurs.

Back to Home
 

Fever

S Y M P T O M S
Body temperature over 98.6 F (37 C). Hot forehead.

T R E A T M E N T
Increase fluid intake. Do not cover excessively. Give Brufen or Paracetamol. Cooling sponges with water only. Call your doctor if fever is over 102F or persists.

Back to Home
 

Electric Shock

S Y M P T O M S
Loss of consciousness may occur. Respiration may cease. Skin may become cold and blue. Electric burn mark is sharply demarcated.

T R E A T M E N T
Free the victim from current. Drag the victim by means of dry cloth or leather belt. Give artificial respiration, if needed.

Back to Home
 

Heat Stroke

S Y M P T O M S
High temperature. Pale and clammy skin, or hot and flushed skin. Headache and weakness. Possible nausea.

T R E A T M E N T
Apply cold cloths to skin. Give balanced salt solution. Call your doctor if patient is confused.

Back to Home
 

Insect Bite and Stings

S Y M P T O M S
Pain and redness at the site of the sting or bite. Possible allergic reactions such as shock and difficulty in breathing.

T R E A T M E N T
Apply cold compresses to bites and stings. Calamine lotion may be soothing also. Call an ambulance or go to the hospital when signs of allegic reactions are present, such as rash, wheezing or troubled breating.

Back to Home
 

Nose Bleed

S Y M P T O M S
Profuse bleeding from the nose.

T R E A T M E N T
Seat patient, tip head forward, and squeeze nostrils firmly together for ten minutes. Cold compresses to nose may help.

Back to Home
 

Poisoning

S Y M P T O M S
Symptoms vary. Throat or stomach pains. mouth burns. Vomiting , drowziness.

T R E A T M E N T
Call hospital or doctor . Give water to dillute poison.

Back to Home
 

Shock

S Y M P T O M S
Victim pale and weak. Clammy skin, perspiration on upperlip and forehead. Pulse rate and breathing rate are increased.

T R E A T M E N T
Keep lightly covered and lying down feet raised higher than body. Give no fluid if unconscious or complaining of abdominal pain. Call an ambulance.

Back to Home
 

Stroke

S Y M P T O M S
Unconscious. Heavy breathing. Apparent weakness in face or limbs on one side of the body. Inability to speak.

T R E A T M E N T
Cover patient with a light blanket. Turn head of vomiting patient to side. Give no stimulants and nothing to eat or drink. Call an ambulance.

Back to Home
 

Sun Burn

S Y M P T O M S
Redness , mild swelling, and pain. Possible blisters.

T R E A T M E N T
Apply burn cream or cold towels. Fever, chills, and sickness may accompany a severe burn and your doctor should be called. Protect redness from further sun.

Back to Home
 

Swallowing Foreign Bodies

S Y M P T O M S
Dangerous when in air passages. Voilent coughing and choking. Bluiish facial discolouration. Breathing my stop.

T R E A T M E N T
If victim can not dislodge object, administer Airways Obstruction procedure. Infants (upto 1 year) tilt head down and give back blows.

Back to Home
 

Tooth Ache

S Y M P T O M S
Pain, Tooth is sensitive to hot and cold fluids.

T R E A T M E N T
Give Brufen or Paracetamol. Apply cold compresses until you get to the dentist.

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